The American Gem Society was established in 1934. It is a recognized Authority in the testing and certification of Registered Jewelers, Certified Gemologists and certified Gemologist Appraisers.
Wearing away or erosion by friction.
Substance used to grind or polish other materials.
American Gem Society Laboratories is recognized by the Jewelry Industry as one of the foremost Authorities for grading diamonds. The AGSL issues a number of grading reports; Diamond Quality reports provide a complete technical grading analysis, including information on proportion, polish and symmetry. Diamond Quality Documents provide a complete grading analysis, with a special emphasis on grading the cut, polish, proportion and symmetry of the diamond.
American Gem Trade Association is recognized in the Jewelry Industry as the Authority on grading natural colored gemstones, Pearls and cultured Pearls.
A metal composed of two or more chemical Elements.
Composed of the Quartz mineral. It is a transparent Gemstone ranging in color from lilac to deep purple. Amethysts are the Birthstone of February.
Annealing is the heating enhancement process used with color Gemstones. It is a common and accepted practice that enhances both the strength and color of various gemstones.
An Appraisal includes a brief description and photograph of the Jewelry item, which includes the 4-C's and dimensions for any Gemstones. It is useful to calculate a coverage rate for your Jewelry by the Insurance Company.
The Birthstone for March this Gemstone from the Beryl Family is transparent and the color of sea water, from which it derives its name. The color ranges from a bright light blue to greenish blue.
The Birthstone for March this Gemstone from the Beryl Family is transparent and the color of sea water, from which it derives its name. The color ranges from a bright light blue to greenish blue.
This unique shaped diamond is nearly identical to the Emerald cut, except Square. The Pavilion is cut with rectangular facets in the same style as the emerald cut.


A Gemstone cut in the form of a narrow rectangle. Tapered Baguettes feature one end broad end and one narrow end. These gemstones are commonly used as accents to the design of the piece of Jewelry.
A Hoop or Finding that is attached to a Pendant where the chain will pass through.
A rigid bracelet designed to slip over the hand with or without a clasp.
A metal rim that surrounds the Gemstone either 1/2 way or completely to secure the Gemstone in place. This does not block the light from entering the Gemstone and creating brilliance.
The Time honored Art of working in Precious metals and enamel.
Associated with the months of the year, listed are the recommended Genuine Birthstones:
» January Garnet
» February Amethyst
» March Aquamarine
» April Diamond, White Sapphire
» May Emerald
» June Pearl, Moonstone
» July Ruby
» August Peridot
» September Sapphire
» October Opal, Pink Tourmaline
» November Citrine
» December Tanzanite, Blue Topaz
Any imperfection of the outside area of the diamond.
The reflections of white light seen when a diamond is viewed from the top.
Light reflected up through the surface of the diamond. Brilliance is maximized by cutting a diamond to the correct proportions.
A specific gemstone cut that has exactly 58 facets, including round, oval, square, pear and heart shaped.
A tear-drop shaped stone faceted with triangular facets, sometimes pierced at the top, also known as "Drop cut".
A minor chip or concussion on the stone that may create root-like lines inside the diamond. Bruises are found in diamonds VVS-1 and lower clarity grades.


A Gemstone with a rounded convex surface, rather than facets. A popular style with Star Sapphire and other opaque Gemstones.
Formed by pouring molten metal into a mold cavity of the desired shape.
Instrument for measuring the dimensions of a Gemstone.
The size of a Gemstone by weight. Diamond weights are expressed in decimals or fractions. There are 100 points to 1.00 carat.
Is the combined carat weight of all the diamonds in a piece of jewelry.
A tiny opening in the stone where a piece of diamond is missing. In the higher Clarity grades this may even be hard to find under 10x magnification.
A setting style where Gemstones are placed side by side in a channel and held with metal from either side.
Working a design into the metal from the front using a hammer and/ or punches.
A tiny chip in the diamond as a result of cutting or a sharp blow. larger, more serious chips can result in considerable weight loss.
This November birthstone is from the Quartz family and displays a golden-yellow -orange color
The Clarity scale represents the inclusions within a Gemstone. Palladora does not stock diamonds in the I- 1 to I-3 clarity range.
Any type of mechanism that connects two ends of a piece of jewelry together.
A group of tiny pinpoints found inside a diamond. Most clouds are made up of crystals too tiny to see individually under 10x magnification.
A setting in which numerous small stones accent or surround a larger center stone.
A band of metal that encompasses the Gemstone to hold it in place.
The color scale is used to describe the color present within a diamond which has been established by Gemological laboratories and are always compared to a Master set of diamonds.
The light and dark patterns you see when you look at a diamond.
A mineral that forms Ruby and Sapphire.
The average angle of the bezel facets relative to the diamonds table.
A tiny bit of mineral, diamond, or other matter that is found inside a diamond. it can vary in shape, size, and color. The presence of a single crystal can make the difference between a grade of IF and a VS-1.
The facet or point at the bottom of the pavilion of a Gemstone. The preferred culet grades for a Round brilliant cut diamond range from none to small and are generally undetectable to the unaided eye.
A diamond with rounded corners and large facets define this traditional shape.
Refers to the geometric proportions of a Gemstone, which is one of the most important factors in determining how much brilliance a gemstone produces. EXAMPLE: Ideal-cut diamonds: reflects nearly all light as brilliance and fire and is a popular choice.


The height of a Gemstone measured from the culet to the table.
The height of the gemstone measured from the culet to the table, divided by the width of the Gemstone. This is critical to creating brilliance and fire in a diamond. A Gemstone with a too low or high depth percentage will lack sparkle.
The decisions made while cutting of the diamond to determine its shape, weight ratio and durability.
An estimated average width of a gemstone or piece of jewelry as measured across its widest part.
Diamonds are formed naturally when carbon is exposed to intense heat and pressure.
Metal cut to look like the facets of a diamond.
A metal form usually made of steel, bronze or brass, into which sheet metal is forced so it will take the conformation of the depression of the die.
Process of reproducing an object by striking a piece of metal between a pair of dies, with male and female patterns to force the metal in to every crevice of the die forming highly detailed impressions.
The length, width and height of a Gemstone represents the size more accurately that carat weight.
The term used to describe how white light is broken up into its spectral colors.
Type of brooch consisting of 2 x halves joined together which can be detached and worn singly.
A Gemstone consisting of two separate layers adhered together.
A diamonds relative resistance to chipping, fracture or breakage.


A brilliant clear green Gemstone from the Beryl family , also the Birthstone for May. Minor inclusions are normally present yet the intensity of color is more sought after.
An elongated octagonal cut Gemstone with mitered corners, whose pavilion is cut with rectangular facets to create brilliance.
A technique where metal is cut away with a tool known as an Engraver to form a design, done either by hand or machine.
Palladora does not sell diamonds that have been enhanced. The Industry practice for the heating of Gemstones is widely accepted.
A diamond that has one or more facets in addition to the normal number of facets in a particular cutting style.
Metal cut to look like the facets of a diamond.


The flat polished surface of a diamond or gemstone. Accurate alignment of facets is a primary factor in the amount of sparkle a diamond displays.
All shapes that are not Round brilliant. Also refers to a diamonds prominent body.
A tiny fracture or fissure inside a diamond that often resembles a feather.
Ornamental openwork of an intricate design.
Components that are used in the assembly of jewelry which may consist of Bails, Earring backs, clasps, etc.
A term referring to the purity of precious metals.
A description as the care taken in the finishing of the diamond as evident its polish and symmetry.
A natural characteristic of diamonds and it is a reaction to UV light . In some instances a diamond with a very Strong fluorescence might appear hazy or oily. Florescence is graded from None to Very Strong.
CUT - COLOR - CLARITY - CARAT weight are the characteristics by which diamonds are judged for quality.
A crack or feather inclusion on the surface of the Gemstone, and can show up as a whitish area because light will not pass through it.
A curved wire Earring back style resembling a "fish hook" passed through the ear lobe, used for dangling or drop earrings.
A brilliant cut diamond having a total of 58 facets.


The Garnet group of minerals represent 8 varieties of which the burgundy-red Garnet is the Birthstone for January.
Refers to the attachments on the Jewelry item where it connects the base with a top of the setting.
Each individual gemstone is comprised of a combination of trace elements, which create a unique set of identifying marks or inclusions. Some Gemstones naturally have fewer inclusions than others. Color is described in terms of tone and hue and its dimensions are gauged in millimeters; length, width, depth.
Gemological Institute of America, one of the world's foremost Authorities of the grading of diamonds.
The intersection of the crown and pavilion which defines the perimeter of the diamond.
The thickness or range of variation thickness of a diamonds girdle.
Gold will never tarnish or corrode measured by Karat for jewelry. Naturally yellow it can be alloyed with other metals to create: White, Red, Green and other color combinations. Pure Gold = 24Karat. Palladora uses 18 Karat gold (750) which is 75% Pure gold and 25% alloy.
These reports are created by Gem Labs who analyze and describe the Diamond quality.
The designation given to a person who has successfully completed a tenure in the grading and identification of Diamonds, Colored Gemstones and has acquired these skills to become a professional Appraiser, Buyer or Retailer.
Miniscule lines that show the irregularities of a diamonds crystal structure.
A form of enamel work achieved by working the metal on an engine turned lathe to form a pattern and then enameling over the pattern.


The markings stamped onto jewelry made of precious metals by Assay offices which have been tested for metal purity as required by Law (United Kingdom).
The setting that holds the diamond in place.
This term is used to describe the visual effect achieved in a round brilliant cut diamond with perfect symmetry and angles. When viewed under 10x magnification, it will show the aligned facets of these diamonds as: the Hearts and Arrows pattern. From the bottom you can see eight perfectly symmetrical Hearts and when viewed from the top, eight completely uniform Arrows.
Having nearly a round pavilion this romantic shape provides beautiful brilliance.
An estimated average measured vertically from the top to the bottom on a piece of jewelry.
A clasp that has an additional safety, sometimes encompassed in the unique design of the jewelry.
Earrings that are hinged at the bottom half , allowing one to open them up and place the post through the earlobe and closing it shut behind the ear.
The predominant color of a colored Gemstone, using the standard spectrum colors: red, orange, yellow, green, blue, violet.


A diamond cut to exact proportions and angles, mathematically calculated to produce maximum brilliance.
Molten precious metal poured into a metal mold and formed into a Bar.
A trace mineral or other imperfection , which was created during the Gemstones formation in the earth, that contributes to the unique identity of a Gemstone.
A tiny indented edge of the original rough diamond crystal that is left unpolished on the surface of the polished diamond.
Materials such as stones, metals are inserted and cemented into the surface of another metal and ground down to create a smooth surface.
The carving or engraving of a design into a Gemstone.
Diamond/Gemstone setting using calibrated stones without showing any visible metal. This technique is similar to the "tongue and groove" method where each stone is uniquely cut to fit into the next.
One of the Platinum Group of metals, used to harden Platinum.


A translucent to opaque Gemstone . The most treasured are the colors of rich green to intense lavender.
A wire ring of any size or shape used for attaching parts.


A measurement of the purity of Gold. Jewelry made from Gold is stamped to show the actual gold content.
A tiny crystal of diamond or other mineral that goes against the grain of the diamond and protrudes slightly through the surface of the diamond facet.


A Craftsperson who cuts, facets, engraves and polishes Gemstones.
A pinpoint hole on the surface of a diamond that leads to a microscopic tunnel that has been drilled into a diamond. This type of hole is most often drilled to remove an internal inclusion, and is considered an artificial form of enhancement. Palladora does not carry these diamonds.
The process of using a laser beam to etch a microscopic inscription onto the girdle of a diamond.
The areas in a diamond where light escapes and does not return back to the eye.
The end-to-end measurement of a piece of jewelry.
Compares the length of a diamond to its width to convey how relatively square or rectangular a Fancy-shape diamond appears from the top.
Natural Yellow diamonds are graded on a different color scale and treasured for the unique color they exhibit.
The overall appearance of a diamond when it is viewed from the top. The description factors in the brightness, fire and scintillation of the diamond in both the fixed and tilted position.
The clasp uses the pressure of a tiny spring to keep the claw closed.
A process that involves the making of a wax pattern, attaching the pattern to a base and placing a steel flask around the base. A plaster type mixture is prepared and poured into the steel flask and left to harden. When cured, the flask is placed into the furnace heated, eliminating the wax pattern and creating a negative relief. Molten precious metal is now poured into the cavity creating a casting of the original wax pattern.
A hand held 10x magnifying glass designed to give the user a closer look at the Gemstone.


The proportions to which the diamond has been cut.
Metal that can be hammered, stretched, rolled, formed and molded into an infinite variety of shapes.
An elongated diamond shape with two pointy ends.
A Master set of grading diamonds used for comparison when color grading.
Term for mixed diamond sizes weighing more than> 1.00 carat.
Classification used in the sorting of diamonds weighing less than <1.00 carat.
Palladora offers: Platinum, Palladium, Gold and Silver used to create fine jewelry.
A design consisting of very small, repeated ridges.
The metric unit of measurement, EXAMPLE: 100.0mm = 4.0 inches
A specific gemstone cut that has exactly 58 facets, including round, oval, square, pear and heart shaped.
Manufacturers Suggested Retail Price. as it states, only a price that is suggested by the manufacturer as to what price a retailer should sell the product for.


A tiny edge of the original rough diamond crystal that is left unpolished on the surface of the polished diamond. A skilled cutter usually confines the indented natural to either the pavilion or the girdle where it is undetectable to the eye in the face-up position.
Gemstones which occur naturally as part of a geological formation, as opposed to being created in a laboratory.
A very fine, elongated inclusion that is usually totally enclosed within the diamond.
A common alloy within Gold, creating White Gold.


An stone which can also be carved, ranges from translucent to opaque. It is usually black or Sardonyx a variety of Onyx is red/ brown.
This Birthstone of October is composed of hydrated silica spheres which create a pattern of mini rainbows throughout the stone. Opals are fragile and have a 2-6% water content, so they should always be stored away from extreme heat and in a moderate environment.
Description of a Gemstone that blocks light from passing through.
A Brilliant cut with an elliptical girdle outline.


A Platinum Group metal which is also hypoallergenic. A true white precious metal that will maintain its color forever.
A satin sheen that develops on the surface of Platinum or Palladium which is produced by daily wear.
Diamonds/Gemstones that are set low and very close together, so that the surface appears to be paved with diamonds.
The bottom portion of the diamond, extending from the girdle to the culet.
The average angle of the main facet plane relative to the diamonds table.
A Fancy shaped brilliant cut diamond with a rounded end and a single point. Also known as Tear-drop.
Minute crystals inside the diamond that look like small specks under 10x magnification.
This is the Birthstone of August. One of the few gemstones that occur in only one color: basically an olive green.
The rarest of all precious metals. It is durable, resists tarnish and is hypoallergenic.
A weight measure that equals 1/100 of a carat or 0.01 carat.
Describes whether any polish marks are visible from the polishing wheel and how defined the edges of each facet are, almost always invisible to the unaided eye.
Platinum , Palladium, Gold, and Silver are the favorite precious metals used in the fabrication of Fine jewelry.
A Square Modified Round Brilliant diamond.
A Gemstone is fitted and set into the prongs of a setting, which securely holds the Gemstone in place.
A term used to describe to what degree the parts of a Gemstone are symmetrical compared to the whole.
A summary of the decisions made while crafting a diamond which determine the diamonds shape, girdle and culet size, durability.
A process of applying a metal coating in a solution onto the surface of a part using the positive/negative flow of electricity to deposit the coating on the surface of the part.


A radiant cut combines the square length to width ratios of an Emerald cut with the triangular faceting of a Brilliant cut. Trimmed corners are the signature of this fancy shaped diamond.
The bending of light rays. The degree of bending is related to the change in speed at which the light travels when it enters the Gemstone.
A raised high relief design on the front of a piece of jewelry made by hammering, embossing the reverse side to form the design from the back side out.
An expensive Platinum Group metal, applied to White Gold and Silver to make these metals even whiter and prevent tarnish.
Collective term for the Shank and the Head of a ring.
A measurement available in North America from 2 - 16
A choker type necklace that is a continuous line of equal or graduated size Gemstones.
A pierced piece of Metal or Gemstone strung between the beads in a necklace.
Gold that has been alloyed with Copper.
The most popular diamond shape consisting of 58 facets (including the culet) first established in 1919 by Master diamond cutter Marcel Tolkowsky.
One of the most precious Gemstone is the red variety of corundum, also the Birthstone for July.
A Platinum Group metal used to alloy with Platinum and Palladium to harden the metal.


A secondary security clasp on a piece of jewelry.
A pressurized current of air carrying crushed silica at a high velocity, used as a texture to compliment the surface of jewelry.
Sapphire is the second hardest Gemstone after diamond. It is from the corundum family of Gemstones, most notable in Blue, yellow and green in color. Sapphire is the Birthstone of September.
A low luster brushed effect finish applied onto jewelry.
Refers to the color purity, or the degree to which the Gem color is free from brown or gray hues. Strong color saturation is often described as vivid.
Is the term used to describe the flashing of light seen when a diamond moves.
A threaded post and screw used on Earrings.
The way a Diamond or Gemstone is attached to the jewelry.
The part of the ring that encircles the finger.
The geometrical shape a gemstone takes on after it has been cut.
A Diamond or Gemstone set alongside or encircling a center stone.
Also known as an "eight" cut Diamond consists of 18 facets: 8 on the crown, 8 on the pavilion plus the table and culet most often used for very small Diamonds.
An alloy of 925 parts Fine Silver and 75 parts copper, gives it the durability needed to produce Fine Sterling jewelry.
A method of joining metal parts together by melting another metal alloy with a lower melting temperature at the joint.
A single Diamond or Gemstone mounted into a piece of jewelry with no other Gemstones.
A common term used to describe the fire and scintillation displayed in a diamond.
The face-up appearance of the Diamond in terms of size. Diamonds with Ideal cuts have an equal weight and spread.
A Ring finding with an enclosed tension spring that allows one to open and close it.
Any one of the eight triangular facets found next to the table in a diamonds crown.
A Diamond cut with a total of 34 facets looking halfway between a round brilliant and eight-cut Diamond.
Symmetry is how the facets of a Diamond align with each other.
Diamonds that are produced in a Laboratory. Palladora does not carry synthetic diamonds.


The largest facet of the gemstone, located on the top of the Gemstone through which refracted light escapes as brilliance.
The width of the table divided by the diameter of the gemstone.
One can determine the quality and grade of a diamond's cut from these proportions.
Founded in Tanzania in 1967, this popular Gemstone is also one of the Birthstones of December. Rarer than Diamonds with only one mine in the world, it is sought after its classic blue violet color.
The tipping or rocking of a Diamond to the point that the girdle can be seen reflecting through the table.
Ranging from Colorless - Extremely Dark indicating color intensity in Gemstones.
Coming in a variety of colors, Blue Topaz is one of the December Birthstones.
Bi-colored and multicolored crystals are common, available in all colors: blue, green, red, yellow, pink etc. Pink Tourmaline is one of the October Birthstones.
A Gemstone cut into an equilateral triangle with a flat top.
An assurance of quality. It is a permanent record of origin and signature of the manufacturer. Palladora is registered with the government both in the United States and Canada.
A triangular brilliant cut diamond with 44 facets.
A visible line inside the Diamond that may look like a ripple. The effect is produced by an irregularity in the crystal structure.
Turquoise has a waxy luster and a soft surface that scratches easily. Colors range from "sky blue" to green and may darken or turn greenish over time.


A device used to clean jewelry using ultrasonic waves to loosen materials that have adhered to your Diamond jewelry.


A ring which is exchanged during the wedding ceremony.
A description of the Diamond's weight relative to its diameter.
Pure gold that is alloyed with either Palladium or Nickel. To achieve its whiteness, jewelry is usually Rhodium plated which over time will eventually need to be re-plated.
The approximate horizontal measurement of a piece of jewelry.
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